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Manual Of Spherical And Practical Astronomy - Vol II: Theory And Use Of Astronomical Instruments (Paperback)

By: William Chauvenet (Author)


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fHiian. S A MANUAL OF SPHERICAL AND PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY EMBRACING THE GENERAL PROBLEMS OF SPHERICAL ASTRONOMY. THE SPECIAL APPLICATIONS TO NAUTICAL ASTRONOMY. AND THE THEORY AND USE OP FIXED AND PORTABLE ASTRO NOMICAL INSTRUMENTS. WITH AN APPENDIX ON THE METHOD OF LEAST SOUAREa BY WILLIAM PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS AND ASTRONOMY Jit WAcSJJWGTON U. VTTEBSITT, 8AJJVT LOUIS. VOL. II. THEORY AND USE OF ASTRONOMICAL INSTRUMENTS. METHOD OF LEAST SQUARES. FIFTH EDITION, REVISED AND CORRECTED. PHILADELPHIA J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY. LONDON-. 10 JOHN STREET, ADELPHI. Kntfred, according to Act of Congress, in the year IMS, fcy J, B. LIPPTNCOTT CO. J the Clwkn Office o the District Court of the United States for the Eaaten District of Pennsylvania. Copyright, 1891, by CATHERINE CHAUVENET, WIDOW, AND CHILDREN OF WILLIAM CHAUVENET, DECEASED CONTENTS OF VOL. IL THEORY AISTI USE OF ASTRONOMICAL INSTRUMENTS. CHAPTER I. PAW THE TELESCOPE P Magnifying power measured 22 CHAPTER II. OF THE MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES OR ARCS IN GENERAL CIRCLES MICROMETER LEVEL 29 Graduated circles 29 The vernier 30 Tiie reading microscope -i, H Eccentricity of graduated circles 41 Periodic functions 42 Ellipticity of the pivot of the alidade 47 Errors of graduation 51 The filar micrometer 59 The level 70 CHAPTER LI INSTRUMENTS FOR MEASURING TIME..., 77 Chronometers 77 Comparison of chronometers 79 Clocks 84 The electro - chronograph 86 CHAPTER IV. THE SEXTANT, AND OTHER REFLECTING INSTRUMENTS 92 Description of the sextant 94 Adjustment of the sextant 95 Method of observation 101 Theory of the errors of the sextant 106 The simple reflecting circle 119 3 CONTENTS. PAG The repeating reflecting circle 119 Theory of its errors 123 The prismatic reflecting circle and sextant 127 CHAPTER V. THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT 131 Description of the transit instrument 132 Method of observation 138 General formulas 139 The transit instrument in the meridian 140 Approximate adjustment 141 Equations of the transit instrument in the meridian 143 Thread intervals 146 Reduction to the middle thread 149 Reduction to the mean of the threads 151 Level constant 153 Collimation constant 160 Azimuth constant 169 lock correction 174 Determination of the right ascension of stars 175 Transits of the moon, sun, and planets 176 Eifect of refraction in transit observations 186 Meridian mark 187 Personal equation 189 Personal scale 193 Probable error of a transit observation 194 Application of the method of least squares to the determination of the time with a portable instrument in the meridian 200 The transit instrument in any vertical plane 209 Finding the time with a portable transit instrument out of the meridian HAN SENS method 215 Application of the method of least squares to the determination of the time with a portable transit, instrument in the vertical circle of a circumpolar star BESSELS method 227 Determination of the geographical latitude by a transit instrument in the prime vertical 238 Determination of the declinations of stars by their transits over the prime vertical 271 CHAPTER VI. THE MERIDIAN CIRCLE 282 Description of the meridian circle 283 Nadir point 285 Reduction to the meridian 289 Horizontal point. Observations by reflection 293 Flexure 302 Observations of the declination of the moon 304 Observations of the declination of a planet, or the sun 309 Correction of the observed declination of a planets or the moons limb for spheroidal figure and defective illumination 310 CONTENTS CHAPTER VII. PAG THE ALTITUDE AND AZIMUTH INSTRUMENT 315 Description Pulkowa vertical circle 316 Universal instrument 319 Theory of these instruments. Azimuths 319 Altitudes or zenith distances 326 Correction of the observed azimuth and zenith distance of the limb of the moon or a planet for defective illumination 333 CHAPTER VIII...



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