Each Problem Solver is an insightful and essential study and solution guide chock-full of clear, concise problem-solving gems. All your questions can be found in one convenient source from one of the most trusted names in reference solution guides. More useful, more practical, and more informative, these study aids are the best review books and textbook companions available. Nothing remotely as comprehensive or as helpful exists in their subject anywhere. Perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.
Here in this highly useful reference is the finest overview of chemistry currently available, with hundreds of chemistry problems that cover everything from atomic theory and quantum chemistry to electrochemistry and nuclear chemistry. Each problem is clearly solved with step-by-step detailed solutions.
DETAILS - The PROBLEM SOLVERS are unique - the ultimate in study guides. - They are ideal for helping students cope with the toughest subjects. - They greatly simplify study and learning tasks. - They enable students to come to grips with difficult problems by showing them the way, step-by-step, toward solving problems. As a result, they save hours of frustration and time spent on groping for answers and understanding. - They cover material ranging from the elementary to the advanced in each subject. - They work exceptionally well with any text in its field. - PROBLEM SOLVERS are available in 41 subjects. - Each PROBLEM SOLVER is prepared by supremely knowledgeable experts. - Most are over 1000 pages. - PROBLEM SOLVERS are not meant to be read cover to cover. They offer whatever may be needed at a given time. An excellent index helps to locate specific problems rapidly.
TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Units Conversion Factors Chapter 1: Units of Measurement Length Area Volume Mass Density Temperature Chapter 2: Gases Boyle's Law, Charles' Law, Law of Gay-Lussac Combined Gas Laws Avogadro's Law - The Mole Concept The Ideal Gas Law Chapter 3: Gas Mixtures and Other Physical Properties of Gases Mole Fraction Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures Graham's Law of Gaseous Diffusion Kinetic Theory of Gases Chapter 4: Avogadro's Hypothesis; Chemical Compounds and Formulas Atomic and Molecular Weights Equivalent Weights Chemical Composition - Weight and Volume Percent Chapter 5: Stoichiometry/Weight and Volume Calculations Balancing Equations Calculations Using Chemical Arithmetic Wright-Weight Problems Reactions with Limiting Reagents Volume-Volume Problems Weight-Volume Problems Chapter 6: Solids Crystal Structure Lattice Structures and Unit Cells Phase Diagrams Chapter 7: Properties of Liquids Density Freezing Point Depression and Boiling Point Elevation Raoult's Law and Vapor Pressure Clausius-Clapeyron Equation of Vaporization Osmotic Pressure Surface Tension Chapter 8: Solution Chemistry Density and Formality Molality Molarity Normality Neutralization Chapter 9: Equilibrium The Equilibrium Constant Equilibrium Calculations The Shifting of Equilibrium-Le Chatelier's Principle Chapter 10: Acid-Base Equilibria Acids and Bases The Autoionization of Water Autoprotolysis pH The Ionization Constant The Dissociation Constant The Hydrolysis Constant Neutralization Buffers Indicators Complex Ions Electrolytes Chapter 11: Solubility and the Ion Product Constant Chapter 12: Calculations using pH and the Dissociation Constant Chapter 13: Chemical Kinetics The Rate Law The Order of Reactions Half-life The Arrhenius Equations: Relating Temperature and Reaction Rate Chain Reactions Chapter 14: Thermodynamics I Bond Energies Heat Capacity Enthalpy Enthalpy Calculations Using the First Law of Thermodynamics Heats of Fusion and Vaporization Chapter 15: Thermodynamics II Entropy Free Energy Equilibrium Calculations Chapter 16: Electrochemistry Conduction Equivalent Weight Redox Reactions Faraday's Law of Electrolytes Electrode Potential Electrochemical Cell Reactions Nernst Equation Chapter 17: Atomic Theory Atomic Weight Valence and Electron Dot Diagrams Ionic and Covalent Bonding Electronegativity Bond Length and Angles Polarity of Bonds Chapter 18: Quantum Chemistry Pauli Exclusion Principle, Hund's Rule Electronic Configuration Molecular Orbital Theory Early Quantum Chemistry The Bohr Atom The de Brogle Equation Wave Functions Atomic Spectroscopy Chapter 19: Nuclear Chemistry Chapter 20: Organic Chemistry I: Nomenclature and Structure Alkanes Alkenes and Alkynes Alcohols Other Functional Groups Chapter 21: Organic Chemistry II: Reactions Alkanes Alkenes and Alkynes Alcohols Other Functional Groups Chapter 22: Biochemistry I Cellular Construction and Dimensions pH and pKa Energy Conversion Molecular Weights, Mole Ratios, Densities and Monomer Units Physical Aspects of Biochemistry Chapter 23: Biochemistry II Proteins Enzymes Carbohydrates Nucleic Acids Chapter 24: Applied Pollution / Environmental Problems Chapter 25: Applied Gas and Gas Mixture Problems Chapter 26: Applied Liquid and Solution Problems Chapter 27: Applied Stoichiometry Problems Chapter 28: Applied Thermochemistry Problems Chapter 29: Applied Energy Problems Chapter 30: Applied Wave Phenomena Problems Chapter 31: Applied Organic and Polymer Chemistry Problems Chapter 32: Applied Biological Problems Index
WHAT THIS BOOK IS FOR
Students have generally found chemistry a difficult subject to understand and learn. Despite the publication of hundreds of textbooks in this field, each one intended to provide an improvement over previous textbooks, students of chemistry continue to remain perplexed as a result of numerous subject areas that must be remembered and correlated when solving problems. Various interpretations of chemistry terms also contribute to the difficulties of mastering the subject.
In a study of chemistry, REA found the following basic reasons underlying the inherent difficulties of chemistry:
No systematic rules of analysis were ever developed to follow in a step-by-step manner to solve typically encountered problems. This results from numerous different conditions and principles involved in a problem that leads to many possible different solution methods. To prescribe a set of rules for each of the possible variations would involve an enormous number of additional steps, making this task more burdensome than solving the problem directly due to the expectation of much trial and error.
Current textbooks normally explain a given principle in a few pages written by a chemistry professional who has insight into the subject matter not shared by others. These explanations are often written in an abstract manner that causes confusion as to the principle's use and application. Explanations then are often not sufficiently detailed or extensive enough to make the reader aware of the wide range of applications and different aspects of the principle being studied. The numerous possible variations of principles and their applications are usually not discussed, and it is left to the reader to discover this while doing exercises. Accordingly, the average student is expected to rediscover that which has long been established and practiced, but not always published or adequately explained.
The examples typically following the explanation of a topic are too few in number and too simple to enable the student to obtain a thorough grasp of the involved principles. The explanations do not provide sufficient basis to solve problems that may be assigned for homework or given on examinations.
Poorly solved examples such as these can be presented in abbreviated form which leaves out much explanatory material between steps, and as a result requires the reader to figure out the missing information. This leaves the reader with an impression that the problems and even the subject are hard to learn - completely the opposite of what an example is supposed to do.
Poor examples are often worded in a confusing or obscure way. They might not state the nature of the problem or they present a solution, which appears to have no direct relation to the problem. These problems usually offer an overly general discussion - never revealing how or what is to be solved.
Many examples do not include accompanying diagrams or graphs, denying the reader the exposure necessary for drawing good diagrams and graphs. Such practice only strengthens understanding by simplifying and organizing chemistry processes.
Students can learn the subject only by doing the exercises themselves and reviewing them in class, obtaining experience in applying the principles with their different ramifications.
In doing the exercises by themselves, students find that they are required to devote considerable more time to chemistry than to other subjects, because they are uncertain with regard to the selection and application of the theorems and principles involved. It is also often necessary for students to discover those "tricks" not revealed in their texts (or review books) that make it possible to solve problems easily. Students must usually resort to methods of trial and error to discover these "tricks," therefore finding out that they may sometimes spend several hours to solve a single problem.
When reviewing the exercises in classrooms, instructors usually request students to take turns in writing solutions on the boards and explaining them to the class. Students often find it difficult to explain in a manner that holds the interest of the class, a...
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